The onychomycosis is one of the most common nail, especially in pathology women and, according to Elisabeth Gomez , Unit Mycology Department of Dermatology Hospital of Malaga and member of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology, “in elderly diabetics and immunosuppressed . ” It has also suggested a genetic predisposition to fungal infection in members of the same family, “so that the spouse is not spread despite a long coexistence and instead the child / a spread at an early age.”
Generally these mushrooms usually grow in damp, warm environments , so ideal for them are usually the place pools, showers or changing rooms of sports facilities , “where through a wet soil can appear both on foot and nail” , says Marta Mayor , member of Dermopharmacy the College of Pharmacists of Barcelona. In addition, says Gomez , “the use of occlusive footwear can also enhance moisture and contagion” . Therefore, fungi are not exclusive pools and summer, “but probably produce more heat symptoms and see more.” It adds Juan Manuel VerdeguerConcerning Dermatology for Primary Care in the department Valencia General Hospital, damaged nails (dystrophic) are more susceptible to fungal infections .
To prevent this infection is advisable to wear dry, clean and well trimmed nails . ” It is important to dry your feet thoroughly after bathing, especially in the interdigital spaces, with a towel or a hair dryer , ” says Mayor . When cutting your nails, you should remove the dirt that accumulates on the edge of the nail cutting the maximum without damaging the edges of it, as “small lesions also increase the risk of infection and, therefore, should take special care pedicures. ” Other preventive measures are not sharing towels, avoid damp feet using proper footwear (natural fabrics, shoes that breathe and do not squeeze) and go always footwear high humidity environments.
- Small lesions also increase the risk of infection and therefore should be especially careful with pedicures
According says Leandro J. Martinez-Pilar , Malaga Hospital dermatologist and member of the Board of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology, treating a fungal affected should always be addressed with antifungal nail : “Sometimes it may be enough topical treatments “. It adds, ” applying nail varnish can lead to a complete cure , although it is important to remember that long treatments, which will last several months and their fulfillment depends on the effective response”.
Usually he advises, “the nail file before the local application”. When the involvement of the nail is greater than or there are several damaged nails, “no other choice but to resort to the use of oral treatments .” As noted by the expert, “dermatologists mainly used terbinafine and itraconazole , although in the case of fingernails being the candida the main fungus causing onicomisos , the fluonazol has very good results.”
Also remember: “The choice of an antifungal or other oral must conform to the results of the direct examination and mycological culture performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis.”
Martinez-Pilar notifies that from pharmacies “should be remembered that most onicopatías non-fungal origin and other dystrophic nature” , so many conditions of the nail only result in continuous microtraumatismos mainly by improper shoes or traumatic sport exercises among others “; consequently, without a certain diagnosis, “we should not initiate antifungal therapy” . It adds the dermatologist, the pharmacist must be “especially careful nails older people, and / or diabetic, as are more prone to have fungal infections ; and remind them that if there is suspected, consult a dermatologist. ” Mayor and Verdeguer agree that treatment is usually quite long and requires much perseverance.
In that sense, the failure of it “may be due to reinfection or incomplete eradication of the original fungus treatment , ” says Verdeguer. Therefore, the pharmacist has a key role to report on “the right way to perform the treatments and ensure their adherence” impinges Mayor .
You can also advise preventive measures to prevent new infections. “A good foot hygiene, along with early treatment of recurrent athlete’s foot, may be the best prevention of onychomycosis” concludes Verdeguer .